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Cardio Metabolic Syndrome
The metabolic syndrome has its origins in 1923 when Kylin described a syndrome involving hypertension, hyperglycaemia and hyperuricaemia. In the 1940s Vague wrote about abdominal obesity and fat distribution and its relation to diabetes and other disorders. Following this, in 1965 an abstract was presented at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes annual meeting by Avogaro and Crepaldi which again described a syndrome which comprised hypertension, hyperglycaemia, and obesity. The field moved forward significantly following the 1988 Banting Lecture given by Gerry Reaven. He described ‘a cluster of risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease’ and named it ‘Syndrome X’. His main contribution was the introduction of the concept of insulin resistance .In 1989, Kaplan renamed the syndrome ‘The Deadly Quartet’ and in 1992 it was again renamed ‘The Insulin Resistance Syndrome’. It is now agreed that the well-established term ‘metabolic syndrome’ remains the most usual description of this cluster of metabolic abnormalities.
Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of components that reflects over-nutrition, sedentary lifestyles and resultant excess adiposity. It includes the clustering of abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and elevated blood pressure. It is associated with comorbities like prothrombotic state, pro-inflammatory state, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and reproductive disorders. The prevalence is increasing to epidemic proportion not only in developed countries but also in developing countries. Most studies show that metabolic syndrome is associated with doubling of CV disease and 5 fold increase in Type II Diabetes.
Diagnosis : A waistline of 40 inches or more for men and 35 inches or more for women (measured across the belly). A blood pressure of 130/85 mm Hg or higher or are taking blood pressure medications, A triglyceride level above 150 mg/dl ,A fasting blood glucose (sugar) level greater than 100 mg/dl or are taking glucose-lowering medications, A high density lipoprotein level (HDL) less than 40 mg/dl (men) or under 50 mg/dl (women).
Eat better. Adopt a diet rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables, skinless poultry, fish, nuts, low-fat or fat-free dairy products, lean meats and vegetable protein. Limit processed foods, saturated and trans fats, red meat, sodium and added sugars.
Get active. Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity a week. Walking is the easiest place to start, but you may want to find something else you like to do that gets your heart rate up. If needed, break your exercise up into several short sessions throughout the day to reach your goal.
Lose weight. Reduce your risk for heart disease by successfully losing weight and keeping it off. Learn your recommended calorie intake, the amount of food calories you’re consuming, and the energy calories you’re burning off with different levels of physical activity. Balance healthy eating with a healthy level of exercise to reach your goals.